Schedule C - Profit and Loss from Business
When a taxpayer has an unincorporated business and is a sole proprietor business owner, they are required to file taxes on Schedule C attached to their Form 1040. Schedule C allows taxpayers to deduct the expenses incurred during the tax year they conducted business from the gross income received. Schedule C taxpayers are required to pay half of their Self-Employment tax since they work for themselves. Any debt incurred by a sole proprietor will be recorded as a 1040 liability under the taxpayers SSN and can be found on their IMF (Individual Master File). **Taxpayers need to be able to prove the figures listed on the 1040, Schedule C.
Schedule K-1 - Partner's Share of Income, Credit, Deductions
Each partner within the partnership uses this Schedule K-1 to report his or her share of the partnerships income, credits, deductions, etc. This form is not filed with IRS, but is simply a record-keeping requirement. Even though partnerships are not generally subject to income tax, each individual partner is liable for tax on their share of the partnership income, whether or not it is distributed.
Self Employment Tax
Self-employment tax is the social security and Medicare tax for people who work for themselves. When an individual pays self-employment tax, they are contributing to their coverage under the social security system. This differs from wage earners who have social security taxes taken from their wages. An individual must pay self-employment tax if: 1) the net earnings from self-employment are $400 or more OR 2) Services are performed for a church as an employee and $108.28 or more is received.
Status 53 is also referred to as Currently Non-Collectible, Currently Uncollectible, or CNC. Status 53 allows taxpayers to make no monthly payments to their delinquent tax debt due to minimal income to provide for themselves and their family.
Status 53 is reviewed by the IRS on a regular basis and the client's status can be changed back to "Collectible" if there is any change in the client's financial situation. Penalties and interest continus to accure while the client is in Status 53.
Statute of Limitation
The IRS has set specific time periods before expiration of certain actions, i.e. to collect a tax, make an assessment to an account, to request a refund, to file bankruptcy, etc.
Subordination of Federal Tax Lien
The legal process whereby the IRS will subordinate its Federal Tax Lien to a third party by temporarily setting aside the lien to enable a refinance or sale of a piece of property. Normally the IRS must determine that it is in its best interest to subordinate, which translates, What are we going to get out of this?
Substitute for Return
If a taxpayer has not filed a return and the IRS feels it can collect from the money earned, an IRS Revenue Officer may file a SFR. When a SFR is filed, the agent lists all of the income reported to the IRS for that year, but only gives the taxpayer one exemption and only the standard deduction, i.e. nothing is itemized. Even if for the past 10 years the taxpayer has itemized, the IRS prepares the return in their favor. If the taxpayer has children the IRS tries to file the return based on the information from the previous years, i.e. married filing joint with 2 children. But IRS will only file this way if they have previous returns showing this info.